Aruba

Aruba

  • Target: Cover all electricity demand by 100% renewable sources by 2020.
  • Status: In progress - To date, 15.4% electricity generation is from renewable energy.
  • RES: 30-MW wind park, and waste-to-energy project generating electricity through biogas.
  • Implementation: The Caribbean island of Aruba in the Caribbean is an autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located off the coast of Venezuela. Aruba's economy is based largely on tourism with nearly 1.5 million visitors per year, which has contributed to Aruba’s high population density with about 500 people per square kilometre (more than New York). In response, the Government of Aruba realised that the island’s economic development must shift in order to maintain and preserve the country's infrastructure and natural resources. In 2009, Aruba launched the islands first wind park. In 2011, the Government published its economic vision and policy plan with the title “The Green Gateway”. It includes plans to promote renewable energy on the island in order to secure and preserve its valuable but fragile natural resources. During the Rio +20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012, the island announced it aim to cover its electricity demand by 100% renewable sources by 2020. In the same year, Aruba together with other Caribbean islands became member of the Carbon War Room’s Ten Island Challenge, an initiative launched at the Rio +20 Conference aiming for islands to shift towards 100% renewable energy. The benefits of becoming 100% renewable for Aruba include: reducing its heavy dependency on fossil fuel, thus making it less vulnerable to global oil price fluctuations, drastically reducing CO2 emissions, and preserving its natural environment.
  • Population: 104,822 (2016)
  • Area: 178.91 km2 (69.08 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.utilitiesarubanv.com/main/wp-content/uploads/pdf/green-deck-aruba.pdf
Aruba

Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire

  • Target: 100% of renewable energy in the electrical system.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Hybrid wind-diesel power plant
  • Implementation: The Caribbean island of Bonaire is located 80km north of the Venezuelan coast. Its energy transition began in 2004 after the island’s sole diesel power plant was destroyed by a fire. Instead of re-building it, the government decided to convert Bonaire’s electricity system to one based on 100% renewable energy sources. The decision was driven by several aspects. Bonaire has close ties to Europe (being a special municipality of The Netherlands) where the share of renewable sources of electricity has been increasingly expanding. Financial support for the transition would come from Dutch Rabobank. The complete destruction of the old electric system presented an opportunity to build something new and innovative. So, while rented diesel generators served as a temporary power supply, the Bonaire government and the local utility closely collaborated in the planning of the energy transition. In 2007, the consortium “EcoPower Bonaire BV” signed the contract with the government-owned Water and Energy Company Bonaire (WEB) to construct a new green energy system, including wind power and biodiesel from algae. In August 2010, the world’s largest hybrid wind-diesel power plant went online. 12 wind turbines with a total wind power capacity of 11MW constituted the first element of Bonaire’s new power generation system. The wind turbines only contributes around 33% to the annual required electricity demand, but at times of peak wind the turbines can cover about 90% of the demand. A 6MWh battery storage for surplus electricity makes the overall system more reliable as it is capable of balancing power fluctuations in times of low wind. When the wind drops the battery provides 3MW for two minutes, which allows enough time to start the 14MW diesel power plant. The diesel generators run with heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil and biodiesel. The next step for Bonaire is the large-scale production of biodiesel from algae, which is currently under development. Besides decreasing the reliance on fuel imports and the impacts of fuel price volatility, the economic benefit of Bonaire’s renewable energy system is expected to return US$15 million annually, from a total investment of $55-60 million, which will be partly compensated by carbon credits.
  • Population: 18,905 (2015)
  • Area: 294 km2 (114 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2015/01/a-caribbean-island-says-goodbye-diesel-and-hello-100-percent-renewable-electricity.html
Bonaire

Bozcaada, Turkey

Bozcaada, Turkey

  • Target: 100% renewable electricity
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: 17 turbine wind farm, solar arrays, hydrogen energy.
  • Implementation: Bozcaada is an island of Turkey in the northeastern part of the Aegean Sea. It currently generates more power than it consumes. In 2000, a 17 turbine wind farm was constructed with a nominal power capacity of 10.2 MW energy, and produces 30 GWh of electricity every year. This is the equivalent consumption of 17,500 households or 30 times the consumption of the whole island of Bozcaada. The excess electricity produced is fed to mainland Anatolia through an underground and partly undersea cable. The hospital and governor’s mansion on the island uses hydrogen energy produced by local renewable energy sources. At the governor’s mansion, energy is captured with a rooftop 20 kW solar array and a 30 kW wind turbine. The electricity produced is used to electrolyze water into hydrogen. This gas is stored compressed and used later to generate energy or as fuel in hydrogen-powered cars.
  • Population: 2,465 (2012)
  • Area: 42.63 km2 (16.46 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.globalislands.net/greenislands/index.php?region=6&c=58
Bozcaada, Turkey

Cape Verde

Cape Verde

  • Target: 100% renewable energy by 2020, become a model for zero emissions on a global scale and a knowledge hub for several sub-regions.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Windpower
  • Implementation: Cape Verde is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It is located 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa. In 2006, its Government adopted a law which sets out licensing procedures for independent power producers and auto-producers. In 2011, it determined a more detailed renewable energy policy framework to include a roadmap on how to reach the 100% RE target. The decision was based on scientific based discussions on the benefits of the goal. The high dependence on imported fossil fuels to meet its energy demand meant that a shift to 100% renewable energy was needed – especially as energy demand is predicted to rise. The Cape Verde government thus decided to invest renewable energy generation in order to not only provide electricity to inhabitants directly, but to also produce desalinated water, extend the energy grid, and provide energy storage options. To gain public support for the energy transition, the government held public consultations which were held in each of the four islands where wind projects would be built. Meanwhile, comprehensive Environmental and Social Impact Assessments were conducted. Local landowners were engaged in the siting of the projects and a consideration about securing grazing rights underneath the wind turbines was included in the course of involving the island's livestock herders.
  • Population: 539,560 (2016)
  • Area: 4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
  • Link: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=2271
Cape Verde

Cook Islands

Cook Islands

  • Target: Eliminate carbon emissions by 2020.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Solar photovoltaic arrays
  • Implementation: The Cook Islands depend heavily on imported fuels and the cost of electricity based on these fuels is very high. Although nearly all households in the Cook Islands are connected to grid electricity, only 5.5% of households have additional solar photovoltaic systems installed, and 1% use small diesel generators. Several actions have taken place throughout the islands to increase the uptake of renewable energy. In the country's south, the Asian Development Bank's Ordinary Capital Resources has loaned US$11.19 to help fund solar projects. The EU has invested US$7.26 million, and the Cook Islands government has added an in-kind contribution of US$5.83 million. The total funding for the build out comes with an installation target in megawatts. The solar projects is expected to save 1.09 million liters of diesel consumption annually, and cut carbon dioxide emissions by 2,930 tons. This project will assist the Cook Islands government’s Office of the Energy Commissioner and the Renewable Energy Development Division in developing an energy efficiency policy implementation plan. In May 2015, the Government of New Zealand announced the completion of solar array projects in Rakahanga, Pukapuka, Nassau, Palmerston, and on the northern Cook islands of Penrhyn and Manihiki, where solar photovoltaic panels are expected to provide over 95 per cent of the electricity needs for the villages they connect to and deliver power to more than 230 homes and public buildings.
  • Population: 17,379 (2016)
  • Area: 236.7 km2 (91.4 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.mfem.gov.ck/447-cook-islands-renewable-energy-chart-planning
Cook Islands

Costa Rica

Fortuna, Costa Rica

  • Target: Achieve 100% RE in the electricity sector and to be ‘carbon neutral’, by 2021.
  • Status: In progress - In 2017, Costa Rica supplies around  93% of its total electricity needs from renewable energy sources, mostly from domestic hydro.
  • RES: Hydropower (majority share), solar, biogas, geothermal and wind power.
  • Implementation: Since decreasing rainfall in the future will pose a risk to the electricity system, Costa Rica is diversifying its electricity mix by developing other forms of renewable energy, such as solar, biogas, geothermal, and wind power. The plan is for the state-owned The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) to purchase power from independent power producers in Costa Rica over 15-year contracts. This will mean a gradual decentralization of the electricity system. The country is also encouraging the broader adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), given that transportation represents approximately 44% of final energy consumption. Targeted incentives for the import and sale of EVs as well as for the development of charging infrastructure is offered by the government. 
  • Population: 4,857,274 (2016)
  • Area: 51,100 km2(19,700 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.worldwatch.org/node/4958
Fortuna, Costa Rica

Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

  • Target: Phase out fossil fuel use entirely in all energy sectors (including transportation) by 2050.
  • Status: In progress - In 2011, the share of renewable energy in the transportation mix was less than 1%, compared to a share of approximately 40% in the electricity mix.
  • RES: Wind and solar power, combined heat and power systems, renewable forms of heating such as solar thermal, ground-source heat pumps, and wood-based biomass.
  • Implementation: Denmark’s domestic energy policy aims at 100% transition of the energy system toward renewable energy technologies by significant expansions of wind and solar power as well as the continued installation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In the heating sector, Denmark is expanding the use of biogas, solar thermal, ground-source heat pumps, and wood-based biomass. It plans to increase the use of electric vehicles and public transit. Denmark is relying greatly on fiscal policies (feed-in tariff, a net metering framework, environmental taxes) to achieve its 100% renewable energy objectives. There are taxes on fossil fuels and carbon pollution. This increases the costs of gasoline, diesel, coal, and heating oil but makes the use of local, renewable sources of energy more attractive. There are also tax incentives or cash grants to encourage specific technologies, such as electric vehicles. Also is a focus on energy efficiency which correlates to current EU plans (20% reduction in energy use by 2020). This means increasing energy efficiency in existing buildings via extensive retrofitting and raising the standards on all new construction. To increase broader electrification, Denmark is also converting its wind resources into thermal form (e.g. feeding wind power into the district heating system and into on-site water heaters) as well as into battery storage for the transport system. Solar thermal technologies will supply heat directly into the country’s district heating systems. Denmark also plans to expand the use of renewable energy in its island regions, such as the Faroe Islands. Expansion of transmission links with neighbouring Germany and Sweden will allow more imports and exports of renewable electricity. Good public support for the 100% strategy has been due to a high level of energy and environmental awareness among its citizens and its politicians, cultivated since the 1973 oil crisis (and even before). Denmark also benefits from a small population, a highly educated workforce, and a number of reputable private and public organisations to support the strategy's implementation. Denmark expects planned investments to be around EUR 750 Million, with savings in energy costs of around EUR 920 Million, both by 2020.
  • Population: 5,806,015 (2018)
  • Area: 2,220,930 km2(857,510 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/10/denmark-wind-windfarm-power-exceed-electricity-demand
Copenhagen, Denmark

El Hierro, Canary Islands

El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

  • Target: To become a self-sustaining island in the face of the global climate crisis and persistently high fossil fuel prices.
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Five turbine wind farms and hydro plant supplies 80% of the island’s energy demands, 20% is generated through solar thermal collectors and grid connected photovoltaic systems. El Hierro’s climate and topography are key factors to the success of its renewable energy systems. The wind blows strongly and steadily. The island is small but mountainous. Excess electricity wind farm is used to pump water into an empty volcanic crater above sea level. When the wind is weak, the stored water is released through turbines to secure a steady supply of electricity. Biomass energy is being evaluated on the island, and electric vehicles are planned to replace fuel-based cars. Another trial is the installation of desalination plants to provide the island with fresh water.
  • Implementation: In the early 1980s, a development model was put in place that focused on respecting the natural environment and conserving natural resources. By 1997, the island council had adopted the El Hierro Sustainability Plan. Its framework initiated a technical feasibility study and finally the construction of the “El Hierro Hydro-Wind Plant”. At a cost of 65 million euros, the project was implemented by 3 entities: the island government of the Canaries (60% ownership), the Canaries Institute of Technology (10%), and a private Spanish energy and utility group (30%). The project was strongly support by its citizens as well as public (particularly the EU) and private institutions which contributed significant economic investment. The remote location of the island and recent submarine volcano eruptions have caused some difficulty with regards to security and logistics. However the council are continual working to address these challenges. It is estimated that the Hydro-Wind Plant project has helped avoid the annual consumption of 6,000 tonnes of diesel, equalling 40,000 barrels of oil that would have to be imported, thus creating a savings of over 1.8 million euros a year.
  • Population:10,798 (2018)
  • Area: 268.71 km2(103.75 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.goronadelviento.es/index.php
El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

Fiji

Fiji

  • Target: Achieve 100% renewable energy share in electricity generation by 2030.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Hydropower, biomass, solar, windpower, coconut oil has been used as an alternative to diesel fuel in some rural area projects, and pilot projects using biogas are under development. Some evidence of geothermal resources.
  • Implementation: Fiji promotes renewable energy through its Rural Electrification Policy (1993), the National Energy Policy (2006) and the ratification of the IRENA Statute (2010). The National Energy Policy focuses on four key strategic areas: national energy planning, energy security, power sector, and renewable energy development. Its national government encourages the development of renewable energy through a number of policies, fiscal incentives, subsidies and loans. Fiji is seeking strong participation of the private sector, important since the emerging industries such as manufacturing, mining and construction are also very energy-intensive. The government has identified challenges to develop and commercialize RE technologies in Fiji: commercial viability, financial feasibility and appropriate service fees.
  • Population: 884,887 (2017)
  • Area: 18,274 km2 (7,056 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/05/24/fiji-growing-a-renewable-energy-industry-while-expanding-electricity-access
Fiji

Gotland, Sweden

Gotland, Sweden

  • Target: Climate-neutral energy supply by 2025
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Wind power
  • Implementation: The Swedish Island of Gotland is committed to having a climate-neutral energy supply by 2025. The objective is to use 100% local, renewable resources to meet all of the energy demand for households and business on Gotland, except for industrial fuels. Gotland has implemented an array of innovative renewable energy projects.  This is largely due to it having the highest sunlight strength in Sweden, is one of the top wind locations in Europe, and has good access to biofuels. The municipality's sustainability initiative already began in the early 1990s, with the aim of creating a sustainable society by 2025. This would not only apply for the energy sector, but also for all resources, agriculture, and waste. Since then, the municipality has already cut its CO2 emissions from fossil fuels nearly in half.  A quarter to half of the entire island's annual electricity demand is met with wind power, and heating is produced with biofuels from local forests. In 2010, Gotland installed its first biogas station for fueling cars and buses, which today totals four stations. In 2017, the first public filling station for HVO was opened. There are also several loading stations for electric vehicles across the island. Wind power development has since grown but existing sea cables have been found to be limited in capacity. The Swedish Government's National Energy Agency is conducting a feasibility study on Gotland as a pilot case for a renewable energy system smart grid to address this challenge.
  • Population: 58,595 (2017)
  • Area: 3,183.7 km2 (1,229.2 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.gotland.se/eco
Gotland, Sweden