Hawaii, USA

Waikiki, Hawaii, USA

  • Target: 100% RE by 2045 in the electricity sector, with several interim benchmarks.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Solar power and wind power.
  • Implementation: In 2012, Hawaii was importing 93% of the energy it consumed and in 2013, the state had the highest electricity prices in the nation, more than three times higher than the average electricity price in the mainland states. In 2012, 71% of the electricity produced in the Hawaii was generated with oil, and in 2012 only 18% with renewable energy sources. By 2014, cost competitiveness of renewable energy technology was driving considerable increase in renewable energy uptake on the Hawaii islands. According to the US EIA, wind is estimated to be able to deliver electricity at a price of 7 ¢/kWh, similarly geothermal at approximately 10 ¢/kWh and utility scale solar PV at approximately 16 ¢/kWh. This is compared to the price of oil-generated electricity which was averaging 34 ¢/kWh in 2014. From 2007 to 2013, solar power generation across the islands went from 8 GWh in 2007 to 404 GWh, while wind power generation more than doubled. In 2015, a joint House-Senate committee in Hawaii agreed on House Bill 623 to set a 100% RE target and became the first US state to commit to this goal. In May of that year, Hawaii’s state legislature committed that the target be reached by 2045, with an interim goals of 30 % RE by 2020, 40 % RE by 2030, and 70 % RE by 2040. (Hawaii's renewable energy plan builds on earlier energy policy frameworks established in 2009, which set two definitive targets: cover 40% of the island needs for electricity only with renewable energy sources by 2030, and at the same time reduce electricity consumption by 30% by implementing Energy Efficiency Portfolio Standards.)
  • Population: 1,427,538 (2017)
  • Area: 10,931 sq mi (28,311 km2)
  • Link: http://www.transverter.com/REACH7.pdf
Waikiki, Hawaii, USA

Hokkaido, Japan

Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan

  • Target: 100% energy self-sufficiency by 2050.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Wind and biomass energy.
  • Implementation: Hokkaido is the second largest of the four main Japanese islands, and the largest of its 47 prefectures. Hokkaido is recognised as having great potential for renewable energies, notably wind energy and biomass.  Its economy is based on agriculture and the timber industry (22% of Japan's forests is located on the island). According to a 2011 study by the Japanese Ministry of Environment, the island has the potential to generate a quarter of the whole country’s renewable energy production, with half of it from onshore and a quarter of it from offshore wind power generation. Several pioneer projects have already implemented on the island since 2001. Among those facilities are the first community-based wind power installation in Japan. Indeed Hokkaido's efforts began on March 11th, 2011 when the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster strengthened the will of Hokkaido’s citizens to transition to a non-nuclear society. It triggered the creation of the Hokkaido Energy Transition 100 Project, a project which quickly released a step-by-step roadmap to 100% renewable energies for electricity production on the island through energy efficiency and community based production of energy.  In 2010, Hokkaido Island still relied mainly on nuclear power (43,8%), and thermal power (33,8%). The share of renewable was of 22,9%, where hydro power constituted 22,1%. The Hokkaido roadmap would diversify the renewable energy sources of the island with solar, biomass, geothermal and especially wind power generation. The roadmap would also outline short, mid and long term objectives to reach for energy efficiency: 17% of savings on 2010 basis in 2020, 29% in 2030 and finally, 60% in 2050. To achieve steady implementation, the Plan is promoting the sharing of best practices between inhabitants of the island. Since the beginning of the project, citizens and private businesses have been supporting the project, including the Hokkaido University Sustainable Low-Carbon Society Project. In May 2014,  the “Hokkaido Energy Change 100 Network” was founded with the aim of continuing the steerage of activities towards the 100% target.
  • Population: 5,377,435 (2016)
  • Area: 83,453.57 km(32,221.60 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/10/14/business/balance-power-shift-toward-renewable-energy-appears-picking-steam/#.XGQGSy3MyIY
Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan

Iceland

Reykjavik, Iceland

  • Target: 100% renewable energy target in the electricity sector
  • Status: Achieved - >99% of the electricity production and >70% of the total energy production come from hydropower and geothermal sources. The country´s buildings are mostly heated with renewable energy and overall 81% of Iceland’s primary energy is renewable, with the remaining 19% based on oil which is used for transportation.
  • RES: Hydropower and geothermal resources. Iceland is a volcanic island with plentiful geothermal heat.
  • Implementation: The country is successful due to its geothermal-based electricity production. In relation to heating, after geothermal water is used for heating buildings, the rest - pavements and car parking are also heated. The island´s vast geothermal capacity is also enabling regional cooperation with the UK, with the construction of an interconnector into the UK grid currently in discussion. Energy projects have largely been developed as part of the Icelandic Clean Energy initiatives, a Research Fund, a Technology Development Fund and a Strategic Research Programme, which include the involvement of Iceland's Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs and Ministry of Industry & Innovation.
  • Population: 355,620 (2018)
  • Area: 102,775 km(39,682 sq mi)
  • Link: https://unchronicle.un.org/article/iceland-s-sustainable-energy-story-model-world
Reykjavik, Iceland

Jeju Province, Korea

Jeju Island, Korea

  • Target: 100% renewable electricity and transport, and to be a “carbon-free island" by 2030.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Onshore (350 MW) and offshore (1 GW) wind turbines, solar (30 MW), small hydroelectric power plants, and power storage systems. Electric cars, house energy management system (HEMS) and other technologies will also become available for the residents of the islands.
  • Implementation: Jeju self-governing province consists of several islands. In 2012, the Jeju Energy Corporation (JEC) of the Jeju province set the 100% target in order to be independent from the electricity imported from the Korean Peninsula, and to meet all its electricity demand by only renewable energy (RE) sources generated from within the islands. This initiative includes the replacement of the current fossil-fuel fired generator with RE technologies. The JEC aims to achieve the target by: (1) turning Gapa Island, a small island located South of Jeju, into a testing laboratory for Jeju to be the first carbon free island, (2) increase the share of renewable energy in the total energy demand to 50% by 2020, and (3) make Jeju Island a carbon-free city by 2030. The first step in switching Gapa Island to a carbon-free electric grid involved the municipality with central government agencies. The energy demand is met completely from wind turbines and solar photovoltaic systems. Electric vehicles for transport and HEMS have been placed in every household on the island. For the second and third steps, the Korean central government and from local investors will be investing in the installation of renewable energy technologies and smart grid trials. The Jeju Test-Bed for the Grid is a project that will function as a testing platform to improve the integration of RE and energy storage facilities within the grid. A total of 168 companies are participating in the project, which covers approximately 6,000 households throughout Jeju Island. The Jeju’s smart grid will be one of the world’s largest smart grid communities that will allow the testing of advanced smart grid technologies, offering opportunities for R&D, energy storage, and the development of new business models.
  • Population: 604,771 (2014)
  • Area: 1,849 km(714 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.ecowatch.com/south-koreas-plan-to-have-worlds-first-carbon-free-island-1891165990.html
Jeju Island, Korea

Kodiak, Alaska, USA

Kodiak, Alaska, USA

  • Target: Produce 100% of the town’s electrical demand with renewable energy by 2020.
  • Status: Achieved - By 2014, 99.7% of the electricity came from wind and hydropower.
  • RES: Wind turbines, smart battery system, grid integration, hydropower.
  • Implementation: In 2008, a renewable energy fund was convened by the State of Alaska via the Alaska Energy Authority. Since, a total of US$55.6 million has been directly and indirectly invested through cooperation with Kodiak Electric Association (KEA).
  • Population: 15,000
  • Area: 13.05 km²
  • Link: https://www.city.kodiak.ak.us/
Kodiak, Alaska, USA

Kurimajima, Miyako City, Japan

Kurimajima, Miyako City, Japan

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Solar photovoltaics
  • Implementation: Kurimajima is a remote Japanese island, part of the Miyakojima Islands and municipality in the South of Okinawa prefecture. The island's only connection to the main island of Miyakojima is a 1,690-meter long bridge and is named after Kurima Island. The Miyakojima Islands are well known in Japan for their tropical landscape and turquoise blue sea. Today they are known as the energy transition pioneers in using small and autonomous energy systems. The 100% renewable energy target originated from the need to preserve local groundwater and ecosystem. The island has a rich and unique marine ecosystem and is one of the most popular islands in Japan for tourism. In 2008, its focus on protecting the environment was outlined in the Eco-Island Miyakojima Declaration. It defined clear goals to cut carbon emissions levels in the island: 40 percent in 2030 compared to 2003 carbon emissions, and 70 percent in 2050.  To achieve this, energy for heating, transport and electricity would come from renewable sources. To date, the island has installed many small-scale power systems, such as photovoltaic panel on houses or local businesses buildings. Solar power generation accounts for 380 kW and storage batteries for 100kW-176kW. A management system of the supply and demand has been tested since 2011  in collaboration with the company Toshiba. The involvement of the municipality and the knowledge of private stakeholders’ have helped build smart-community grids. These systems are working to stabilise energy supply on the remote island.
  • Population: 200
  • Area: 2,84 km²
  • Link: https://www.nedo.go.jp/content/100788811.pdf
Kurimajima, Miyako City, Japan

Lolland, Denmark

Lolland, Denmark

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Wind energy
  • Implementation: By 2006, the island of Lolland off the coast of Denmark was already producing 50% more power from wind than it could consume. It was decided that the best use of the excess renewable electricity was for the production of hydrogen for a hydrogen fuel cell plant. A hydrogen fuel cell is similar to a battery but requires a continuous feed of hydrogen and oxygen to work. Energy is needed to split water molecules (H2O) into its components hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O2). By using wind energy for this purpose, the hydrogen fuel cell plant was 100% renewable. Several major milestones in fuel cell cogeneration development on Lolland are of note. In November 2006, the first demonstration facility for residential Hydrogen Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power (CHP)was built in the island's town of Nakskov and began producing both electricity and usable heat . In 2008, the facility was connected to existing island buildings. Small 2 kW Hydrogen Fuel Cell CHP units were also installed in 5 homes to show that houses could become their own efficient, secure, decentralized production units of heat and power, without any need for large, centralized utilities. Between 2010 and 2012, the decentralized Fuel Cell CHP program was expanded to 35-40 homes.
  • Population: 62,578 (2013)
  • Area: 1,243 km2 (480 sq mi)
  • Link: http://climatebuildings.dk/vestenskov.php
Lolland, Denmark

Mindanao, Philippines

Mindanao, Philippines

  • Target: Bring renewable, off-grid electricity and clean water to remote, conflict impacted communities in rural Mindanao.
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Solar photovoltaic (PV) battery chargers, PV solar home systems of 20-50 watt-peak, 210-300 watt-peak community PV systems for schools, health centers, and community centers, and 20-45 kilowatt micro-hydro systems.
  • Implementation: Since 2009, the Alliance for Mindanao Off-Grid Renewable Energy (AMORE) has supplied electricity to over 13,000 households in more than 400 barangays (villages) in 12 provinces, most of which are in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao. AMORE is implemented by Winrock International and funded by the United States Agency for International Development, the Department of Energy, the former Mirant Philippines Foundation, and Sunpower Foundation. To be qualified for the program, communities have to be low-income but show potential for economic development, and be at least 5 kilometers from an existing electricity grid connection. The AMORE program trains local community members to manage and efficiently run their own renewable electricity installations. They would form Barangay Renewable Energy and Community Development Associations (BRECDAs), where citizens would build skills and knowledge necessary for community development. Each BRECDA chooses their own leaders and rules, raises their own money, and completes the proper government registration of their organization. Women and children are encouraged to participate, and BRECDAs organize locally and regionally to share best practices and resources. Through the AMORE program people also learn about the importance of water and other natural resources for their livelihood. Most of the program's projects have been funded by subsidised grants but AMORE is now helping local renewable energy providers to develop economically sustainable business models. One example of an AMORE project is Lam-Alis is a small rural community located in the province of Sultan Kudarat. The program helped create a 9 kilowatt, off-grid micro-hydro source for electricity using the local creek, supplying power to more than 80 households. The local people created a membership group called the Lam-alis Christian-B’laan Renewable Energy Association (LACREA) to administer the project, along with a clean drinking water program. LACREA collects PHP100.00 per month (USD2.3/month) for electricity and PHP10 each month (USD0.23/month) for water from community members who opt for the service. Failure to pay risks having electricity cut off. By March 2011, LACREA accumulated more than three hundred thousand pesos (USD7,000).  In addition to membership fees and electricity and water payments, the association earns extra income from a corn mill, a fish pond and a lending business, which they created to take advantage of the cheaper micro-hydro sourced electricity. LACREA is purchasing and lending out battery systems to households to connect to the micro-hydro plant.
  • Population: 25,537,691 (2018)
  • Area: 97,530 km2 (37,660 sq mi)
  • Link: http://edgedavao.net/bigger-picture/2017/11/07/renewable-energy-future-source-power/
Mindanao, Philippines

Niue

Niue

  • Target: 100% renewable energy target by 2020.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Solar thermal and photovoltaics
  • Implementation: Niue is the smallest island in South Pacific inhabited by 14 communities. There are only 400 occupied households. Farming and fishing are the two most important industries in the island - these receive development assistance from New Zealand. Due to its location, the island is often hit by a cyclone – around every four years –  causing huge physical and economic damage to the country. Its energy sector is hugely dependent on imported fossil fuels, which comes at a huge cost for the island as it uses diesel for generating power. In 2005, the country adopted the Niue Energy Policy and Energy Action Plan, which laid out its commitment to energy efficiency and renewable energy, in particular its 100% goals. The exploration of the country´s potential for renewables is not new and for many years Niue has been using solar water heating, such as is the case with local tourist accommodations. Since then further solar thermal systems have been installed, in particular EU program (2004-2006) which provided incentives for the installation of solar water heaters in households. In recent years, Niue has implemented three grid-connected solar PV systems, solar water heaters, and LPG gas stoves in homes, all installed at a subsidized cost since renewable energy technology was very costly, particularly for the pacific islands´ citizens. These systems were funded by the European Union. Today, electricity generation and energy efficiency programs on the island are managed by Niue Power Corporation (NPC), the national power utility. Major challenges for the island have been: complex requirements by financing institutions, lack of adequate technical capacity for projects maintenance, and limited knowledge of renewable energy. It has been observed that during the implementation of some EU-funded projects that the equipment used sometimes did not suit local conditions.
  • Population: 1,624 (2016)
  • Area: 261.46 km(100.95 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/Niue.pdf
Niue

Palawan, Philippines

Palawan, Philippines

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Hydropower
  • Implementation: Palawan is an island province off the coast of the Philippines. In order to promote access to electricity, increase reliability, add local jobs, protect the island environment, and lower energy costs, the province has set a goal of being powered by 100% renewable sources. Currently, more than half the communities in the province are without electricity. Where electricity does exist, it is expensive, reportedly twice as costly as in Manila. It is also unreliable as Palawan is not connected to the mainland grid, and black-outs and brown-outs are common. To achieve its 100% renewable target, Palawan aims to attract renewable energy investors to help fund the costs of installation by easing planning processes and providing incentives such as tax breaks. In November 2014, it was announced that the energy department contracted with local power generation and construction firm AGPI to build 11 hydropower plants in Palawan totalling 131 MW. Palawan's renewable energy plan however is under threat by national government support of building a coal plant on the island, with diesel being the preferred alternative. There has been significant local opposition to the building of the plant, including criticism by environmental groups like World Wildlife Fund.
  • Population: 849,469 (2015)
  • Area: 14,649.73 km2(5,656.29 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.rappler.com/business/industries/173-power-and-energy/41998-palawan-renewable-energy-plan
Palawan, Philippines