Communauté de Communes du Mené, France

Pontrieux, Le Mené, France

  • Target: 100% Renewable Energy by 2030
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Biomass and biogas energy.
  • Implementation: The Communauté de Communes du Mené is composed of 7 villages in Mené, located in the Côtes d'Armor region in Brittany, France. Due to the abundance in  agricultural resources and the need to boost their local economy, they decided to embark on a plan to achieve 100% renewable based on local energy, by 2030. It all began in  the early 2000's when local farmers began to seriously worry about their impact on the environment and local economic development. To tackle this challenge, they first set themselves an interim target of becoming zero net energy--that is producing as much energy as it consumes--for heating and electricity by 2012. Since then, several milestones has been reached. In 2007, a facility that produces rapeseed oil and diesel for tractors was opened in Saint Gouéno . The plant also makes cattle cake that is used by local dairy farmers (which eliminated the need to import soy cattle cake from Brazil). In two other Communes in Mené, locally grown wood was sourced to generate heating for 4500 square meters of buildings, which soon replaced 300 tonnes of petroleum based heating oil. Heating systems will also add wood from a plantation irrigated by waste water from Géotexia, a new biogas plant. Work is underway on a 25 MW wind farm, and 35 new zero-energy residential buildings are being developed.
  • Population: 6 453 (2012)
  • Area: 163,23 km²
  • Link: https://www.mene.fr/environnement-developpement-durable/les-energies/
Pontrieux, Le Mené, France

Copenhagen, Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

  • Target: Carbon neutral capital by 2025.
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Windpower, solar energy, biomass cogeneration plants, biogas and hybrid buses, electrical and hydrogen-powered cars, and energy retrofitted buildings.
  • Implementation: The city of Copenhagen, Denmark, aims at be a carbon neutral capital by 2025. In 2014, the city received the European Green Capital Award and in 2013 the Climate Leadership Prize. In 2009, Copenhagen City Council adopted a 2015 climate plan for the city, which resulted in a reduction of COemissions by 21% by 2011 in comparison to 2005 figures. To reach the 2025 carbon free target, the city will focus on four main areas: energy consumption, energy production, mobility, and city administration initiatives. It includes the construction of land and offshore wind turbines, energy retrofitted buildings, implementation of Low-Energy Construction in all buildings, and promotion of solar energy. In addition to that, the city plans the switch from coal to biomass in heat and power plants, geothermal plant, more renewable energy in the country´s electricity grid, and the obligation of energy companies to save energy. The capital is also taking into account the stricter European regulations on fuel efficiency, the promotion of cycling, biogas and hybrid buses, and the introduction of electrical and hydrogen-powered cars. The city administration is reducing its own energy consumption in its buildings by 40% in comparison to 2010, and is fuelling all city administration vehicles with electricity, hydrogen, or biofuels.. The constant evaluation and follow-up of the city's Plan is secured through the preparation of an annual report and meeting of various stakeholders for dialogue and benchmarking. In addition to that, three general evaluations of the plan would occur: in 2015-2016 to evaluate the period 2013-2016, in 2019-2020 to evaluate the period 2017-2020, and in 2025-2026 when the final evaluation of the plan will take place.
  • Population: 777,218 (city), 2,057,737 (metro) (2018)
  • Area: 178.46 km2 (68.90 sq mi)(city), 1,767.52 km2(682.44 sq mi)(metro)
  • Link: https://international.kk.dk/artikel/carbon-neutral-capital
Copenhagen, Denmark

Dardesheim, Germany

Dardesheim, Germany

  • Target: Energy self-sufficiency by becoming independent from fossil-fuel based energy sources.
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: 32 wind turbines with a total wind power capacity of 68,9 MW, nine solar power plants, biomass-based heating systems, and household solar collectors.
  • Implementation: Dardesheim has pioneered the use of renewable energy sources in Germany since one of the first wind turbines was erected in Saxony-Anhalt in 1993. This windpark expanded in 1994 following an agreement with a wind turbine company. Today, the local hill of Druiberg is covered with 32 wind turbines with a total wind power capacity that is equivalent to about forty times the total annual electricity consumption of Dardesheim or 15 times the overall energy demand, including electricity, heating or cooling and fuel for transportation. By 2017, seven additional wind turbines and a battery storage system have been added to the system. The storage system works to temper the effects of varying wind conditions. Besides wind power, nine solar power plants also produce one third of Dardesheim’s electricity demand since 2005. In addition, household solar collectors on roofs provide warm water and there are several biomass-based heating systems in town. In 2005, two local car companies started to offer the exchange of diesel-fuel driven engines with biodiesel engines fuelled by domestically grown rapeseed oil. Near the town hall, a plug-in station for electric cars was constructed. The success of the town can be attributed to to the transparency accompanying the overall process. The bimonthly published info sheet ”Dardesheimer Windblatt” is delivered to every household free of charge, providing everyone with the latest developments on the Dardesheim energy project. The wind park regularly offers guided tours.
  • Population: 750 (2011)
  • Area: 0.952 km²
  • Link: https://www.powerengineeringint.com/articles/print/volume-16/issue-2/features/germany-focus-renewables/renewables-an-essential-part-of-germanyrsquos-future.html
Dardesheim, Germany

Denmark

Copenhagen, Denmark

  • Target: Phase out fossil fuel use entirely in all energy sectors (including transportation) by 2050.
  • Status: In progress - In 2011, the share of renewable energy in the transportation mix was less than 1%, compared to a share of approximately 40% in the electricity mix.
  • RES: Wind and solar power, combined heat and power systems, renewable forms of heating such as solar thermal, ground-source heat pumps, and wood-based biomass.
  • Implementation: Denmark’s domestic energy policy aims at 100% transition of the energy system toward renewable energy technologies by significant expansions of wind and solar power as well as the continued installation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. In the heating sector, Denmark is expanding the use of biogas, solar thermal, ground-source heat pumps, and wood-based biomass. It plans to increase the use of electric vehicles and public transit. Denmark is relying greatly on fiscal policies (feed-in tariff, a net metering framework, environmental taxes) to achieve its 100% renewable energy objectives. There are taxes on fossil fuels and carbon pollution. This increases the costs of gasoline, diesel, coal, and heating oil but makes the use of local, renewable sources of energy more attractive. There are also tax incentives or cash grants to encourage specific technologies, such as electric vehicles. Also is a focus on energy efficiency which correlates to current EU plans (20% reduction in energy use by 2020). This means increasing energy efficiency in existing buildings via extensive retrofitting and raising the standards on all new construction. To increase broader electrification, Denmark is also converting its wind resources into thermal form (e.g. feeding wind power into the district heating system and into on-site water heaters) as well as into battery storage for the transport system. Solar thermal technologies will supply heat directly into the country’s district heating systems. Denmark also plans to expand the use of renewable energy in its island regions, such as the Faroe Islands. Expansion of transmission links with neighbouring Germany and Sweden will allow more imports and exports of renewable electricity. Good public support for the 100% strategy has been due to a high level of energy and environmental awareness among its citizens and its politicians, cultivated since the 1973 oil crisis (and even before). Denmark also benefits from a small population, a highly educated workforce, and a number of reputable private and public organisations to support the strategy's implementation. Denmark expects planned investments to be around EUR 750 Million, with savings in energy costs of around EUR 920 Million, both by 2020.
  • Population: 5,806,015 (2018)
  • Area: 2,220,930 km2(857,510 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/10/denmark-wind-windfarm-power-exceed-electricity-demand
Copenhagen, Denmark

Dobbiaco (Toblach), Italy

Dobbiaco, Italy

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Solar PV and thermal collectors, hydro power plant, biomass district heating plant and  biogas facility.
  • Implementation: The city of Dobbiaco is located 1,256 m above sea level, in the Pusteria Valley in the northern Italian region of Trentino Alto-Adige. It was awarded by the Italian Environment League the title of “Renewable Town” in 2009 and 2011, and was also included in the Res Champions League of 2011. In terms of electricity production, extensive energy supply has been achieved through solar PV panels with an installed capacity of 1,590 kW and a 1,783 kW mini-hydro power plant whose production capacity exceeds the electric needs of households of Dobbiaco. There are also 1,350 square meters of solar thermal collectors installed as well as a district heating network connected to two installations. One is an 18 MW thermal biomass plant and the other one is a 132 kW biogas facility. Together they produce more energy than the heating needs of Dobbiaco. The biomass district heating plant opened in 1995 and it is able to also satisfy the heat demand of the neighboring town of San Candido. The biomass used in this plant is composed of locally sourced wood chips derived from pruning residues, bark residues, and wood waste from sawmill and various factories. Thanks to this combination of technologies, Dobbiaco produces more electricity and thermal energy than that is consumed by households.
  • Population: 3,283 (2010)
  • Area: 126.6 km2 (48.9 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.suedtirol.info/en/experience/sustainable-holiday/south-tyrol-backs-sustainability
Dobbiaco, Italy

Effelter, Germany

Effelter, Germany

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Biogas plant, wood chip boiler, cogeneration units, district heating network and solar PV.
  • Implementation: Effelter is a small rural village located in the northern part of Bavaria, Germany. Today, the village is producing 200% of its electricity consumption and meeting all of its heating needs with biomass, a local renewable resource. All of the power plants are owned by local citizens. Effelter's renewable energy transition began in 2001 when the installation of one biogas plant began to quickly garner community interest. The plant was soon supplying all of Effelter's heat requirements. Including two 65 kW combined heat and power units, along with a 500 kW wood chip boiler that provides extra backup in winter, the heat generated was distributed to every house via a 2.4 km / 1.4 mile long hot water pipe network. Combined with the installation of 160kW of solar PV on roofs, the biogas fuelled cogeneration units, the village was able to produce more than twice the electricity it needs.

    Raw material and waste from the agricultural and forestry sectors in the area helps fuel the village's energy plants. The biogas plant sources agricultural waste, liquid manure and grass from local farmers. The wood chips for the boiler plant are sourced from local forestry waste. The by-product from the biogas plant is used as a fertilizer, while the ashes from the wood chip boiler also helps to nourish the local forest.
  • Population: 244 (2015)
  • Link: http://bioenergiedorf-effelter.de/?lang=en
Effelter, Germany

El Hierro, Canary Islands

El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

  • Target: To become a self-sustaining island in the face of the global climate crisis and persistently high fossil fuel prices.
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Five turbine wind farms and hydro plant supplies 80% of the island’s energy demands, 20% is generated through solar thermal collectors and grid connected photovoltaic systems. El Hierro’s climate and topography are key factors to the success of its renewable energy systems. The wind blows strongly and steadily. The island is small but mountainous. Excess electricity wind farm is used to pump water into an empty volcanic crater above sea level. When the wind is weak, the stored water is released through turbines to secure a steady supply of electricity. Biomass energy is being evaluated on the island, and electric vehicles are planned to replace fuel-based cars. Another trial is the installation of desalination plants to provide the island with fresh water.
  • Implementation: In the early 1980s, a development model was put in place that focused on respecting the natural environment and conserving natural resources. By 1997, the island council had adopted the El Hierro Sustainability Plan. Its framework initiated a technical feasibility study and finally the construction of the “El Hierro Hydro-Wind Plant”. At a cost of 65 million euros, the project was implemented by 3 entities: the island government of the Canaries (60% ownership), the Canaries Institute of Technology (10%), and a private Spanish energy and utility group (30%). The project was strongly support by its citizens as well as public (particularly the EU) and private institutions which contributed significant economic investment. The remote location of the island and recent submarine volcano eruptions have caused some difficulty with regards to security and logistics. However the council are continual working to address these challenges. It is estimated that the Hydro-Wind Plant project has helped avoid the annual consumption of 6,000 tonnes of diesel, equalling 40,000 barrels of oil that would have to be imported, thus creating a savings of over 1.8 million euros a year.
  • Population:10,798 (2018)
  • Area: 268.71 km2(103.75 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.goronadelviento.es/index.php
El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

Extremadura, Spain

Extremadura, Spain

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Solar energy, wind power and hydropower.
  • Implementation: The region of Extremadura in southwestern Spain is one of the country's leaders in renewable energy installation. In 2010, its electricity demand was met by entirely renewable sources for the first time. In that year, the higher than usual winds and rainfalls, made its wind power and hydroelectric plants more productive than usual. It even enabled Spain to export electricity to France for the first time. Under normal weather conditions, Extremadura would only meet 78% of power demand with renewable technologies. However, renewable electricity installation has progress rapidly in the region in the last decade, which will see 100% renewable energy achievable for the long-term . For example, Extremadura today region gathers over 40% of Spanish concentrated solar power (CSP) projects. Wind energy has also been boosted and in 2011 the first 97 wind parks were approved in Extremadura, with more than 1.700MW. Biomass is an emerging sector, due to the large quantity of available resources of the region. Many plants are being promoted and an average of 150MW is expected to be implanted in the next 3 years.
  • Population: 1,087,778 (2016)
  • Area: 41,634 km2 (16,075 sq mi)
  • Link: http://www.eneragen.org/en/members/extremadura-energy-agency/
Extremadura, Spain

Feldheim, Germany

Feldheim, Treuenbrietzen, Germany

  • Target: 100% renewable energy self-sufficient, climate neutral village.
  • Status: Achieved
  • RES: Wind farm and biogas-fired thermal power station.
  • Implementation: In 1997, Feldheim local council began by installing four wind turbines together with local residents and start-up company “Energiequelle”. By 2015, the number had expanded to 47 wind turbines with a total capacity of 74MW. A battery system saved surplus energy, enough to supply electricity to the village for two days. In 2008, the community decided to build a biogas plant to further reduce energy costs by providing district heating. The biogas-fired thermal power station covers the total heating demand of the village and the surplus heat is used to generate electricity. In that same year, a solar park was added to the system, producing electricity for 600 households. The rapid growth in renewable energy development led to the establishment of the Feldheim Energie GmbH & Co. KG by local citizens. The company planned to directly supply district heating and electricity to the community instead of just feeding power into the national grid. However, the regional utility company E.ON refused to sell nor lease the grid to the villagers. In response, with financial support of the EU, Feldheim decided to build their own electricity and district heating grid, which ultimately made them entirely energy-sufficient (in heating and electricity) and a climate neutral village by 2010. Feldheim sells 99% of the energy produced by its wind park, CO2 emissions have been drastically reduced, energy prices have dropped by a third and citizens are no longer affected by rising gas or oil prices.
  • Population: 128 (2010)
  • Area: 15,7 km²
  • Link: https://nef-feldheim.info/the-energy-self-sufficient-village/?lang=en
Feldheim, Treuenbrietzen, Germany

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Frankfurt, Germany

  • Target: 100% renewable energy
  • Status: In progress
  • RES: Combined heat and power (CHP), solar thermal and PV, wind power, and the use of local organic wastes for both heating and power generation.
  • Implementation: The city of Frankfurt is a global financial hub and has positioned itself as a leader in sustainability and climate protection for several decades. In 1985, it founded one of the first municipal energy and climate protection agencies, which has worked extensively on promoting energy efficiency in local buildings and the adoption of combined heat and power systems. In 2008, the Frankfurt City Council agreed to implement a list of fifty energy saving and climate protection measures. The current Master Plan includes a dynamic array of projects and initiatives designed both to reduce emissions and to increase the adoption of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Between 1990 and 2012, the City managed to reduce its emissions by 15% while the economy grew by over 50%.
    Frankfurt implements projects by combining a top-down and bottom-up strategy, involving local citizens and businesses. The city benefits from a highly educated workforce, and a citizenry that broadly supports climate action and the continued expansion of energy efficiency and renewable energy. In addition, both the federal and state-level governments have provided funds to help support Frankfurt’s 100% strategy. The city aims to increase awareness within local schools through a wide range of onsite projects in schools across the city. The City’s Energy Agency is in the process of elaborating on its Master Plan, a strategy whose implementation will involve architects, engineers, consultants, local businesses, public buildings such as schools and hospitals, as well as local residents.
    Due to the fact that Frankfurt is a relatively dense urban area, city representatives and local experts determined Frankfurt would need to rely on neighbouring communities and the surrounding rural area in order to reach the target of supplying 100 % the cities total energy needs from renewable energy sources. The current Master Plan envisions that approximately 25% will be supplied from energy generated within the City, 25% from outside the City, and total energy consumption will be decreased by 50%. Key elements of the strategy include increasing energy efficiency by 50 %, expanding combined heat and power (CHP) and increasing the role of solar (both thermal and PV), wind, and the use of local organic wastes for both heating and power generation. In addition, there are a number of pilots underway, including the initiative to develop a Virtual Power Plant (VPP), which would be designed to integrate several small generators into an interconnected network capable of adjusting to fluctuations in RE output.
  • Population: 746,878 (2017) city, 5,604,523 (2017) metro
  • Area: 248.31 km2 (95.87 sq mi)
  • Link: https://www.frankfurt.de/sixcms/detail.php?id=3077
Frankfurt, Germany