- Target: Zero-emissions renewable energy community wide by 2025
- Status: In progress
- RES: Rooftop solar phototovolatics
- Implementation: Byron Shire is a community of around 31,500 people located in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Since 2014, the Shire has been making efforts to cut emissions through the launch of a community-owned clean energy generator focusing on solar photovoltaic (COREM - Citizens Own Renewable Energy Mullumbimby), a strong uptake of rooftop solar and the cooperation of energy retailer ENOVA, through which Byron buys and distributes renewable energy from a range of sources. In 2015, the Shire set the goal of transitioning away from non-renewable energy sources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to zero within 10 years. It aimed to be the first in Australia to achieve this goal. This commitment, prompted by a visit by the think tank Beyond Zero Energy, also built on Byron Shire's Low Carbon Strategy that laid out how municipal operations could reduce greenhouse gas and protect the community from the impacts of peak oil. The Energy Strategy would focus on the several aspects namely: renewable energy; building retrofits; electric vehicles, cycle ways and public transport; land use management and vegetation; and waste and waste water management.
- Population: 31,556 (2016)
- Area: 566.7 km2 (218.8 sq mi)
- Link: https://zerobyron.org/energy/
Tag: — Oceania South Pacific
Canberra, ACT, Australia
- Target: 100% renewable electricity supply by 2020.
- Status: In progress - 47MW renewable energy capacity (2013) in Australian Capital Territory (ACT).
- RES: Wind and solar farms.
- Implementation: Canberra covers the 100% through auctioning, meaning the purchase of electricity from several wind and solar farms. Until 2017, the government commissioned three solar and three windfarms to respectively provide 44MW and 200MW, accounting for 60% renewables. Additional 200MW wind and 50MW solar capacity are to cover the interim target of 90% by 2020. Increased annual electricity bills by 2020 are to be partly compensated by annual average savings through the free replacement of downlights. Investments will be made in renewable research programmes and training, as well as the building of headquarters and maintenance facilities . So far, AUD $400 million local investments have been achieved in the auctioning process.
- Population: 410,301
- Area: 814.2 km²
- Link: https://www.environment.act.gov.au/energy/cleaner-energy/renewable-energy-target-legislation-reporting
Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia
- Target: 100% RE by 2030, with an interim target of 25% in 2020 and 50% in 2025.
- Status: In progress - In 2014 already 39% of all Coffs Harbour households or businesses have installed rooftop solar PV systems.
- RES: Solar power and energy-efficient street lighting
- Implementation: Coffs Harbour City Council set a 100% RE as a corporate, organisational target for itself in March 2015. Although the target did not apply to the rest of the city area, its aim was to make the Council a role model of sustainability to the Coffs Harbour area. The Council committed to reducing annual corporate CO2 emissions by 25% on 2010 levels by 2020 and by 50% by 2025. In 2004, it was the first council in Australia to introduce energy-efficient street lighting across its entire local government area. In 2010, the Council installed the largest public rooftop solar power array in NSW on the top of Rigby House which saves $30,000 per annum in electricity costs. It has also installed solar panels at the local Botanic Gardens. In October 2013, Council adopted a Climate Change Policy. It adopted an energy fund for investment into efficiency works and renewables that will be financed through 10% of the difference in costs between the black and green energy purchased by Council, or AUS$100,000 a year, whichever is the greater. A Coffs Harbour Emissions Reduction Plan (CHERP) has been effective from January 2016, which sets out a framework on how the Council monitors, reviews and reports on its emissions and RE.
- Population: 70,000 (2017)
- Area: 1,175 km2
- Link: https://www.coffscoastadvocate.com.au/news/council-sets-ambitious-energy-and-emissions-target/2579807/
- Target: Eliminate carbon emissions by 2020.
- Status: In progress
- RES: Solar photovoltaic arrays
- Implementation: The Cook Islands depend heavily on imported fuels and the cost of electricity based on these fuels is very high. Although nearly all households in the Cook Islands are connected to grid electricity, only 5.5% of households have additional solar photovoltaic systems installed, and 1% use small diesel generators. Several actions have taken place throughout the islands to increase the uptake of renewable energy. In the country's south, the Asian Development Bank's Ordinary Capital Resources has loaned US$11.19 to help fund solar projects. The EU has invested US$7.26 million, and the Cook Islands government has added an in-kind contribution of US$5.83 million. The total funding for the build out comes with an installation target in megawatts. The solar projects is expected to save 1.09 million liters of diesel consumption annually, and cut carbon dioxide emissions by 2,930 tons. This project will assist the Cook Islands government’s Office of the Energy Commissioner and the Renewable Energy Development Division in developing an energy efficiency policy implementation plan. In May 2015, the Government of New Zealand announced the completion of solar array projects in Rakahanga, Pukapuka, Nassau, Palmerston, and on the northern Cook islands of Penrhyn and Manihiki, where solar photovoltaic panels are expected to provide over 95 per cent of the electricity needs for the villages they connect to and deliver power to more than 230 homes and public buildings.
- Population: 17,379 (2016)
- Area: 236.7 km2 (91.4 sq mi)
- Link: http://www.mfem.gov.ck/447-cook-islands-renewable-energy-chart-planning
- Target: Achieve 100% renewable energy share in electricity generation by 2030.
- Status: In progress
- RES: Hydropower, biomass, solar, windpower, coconut oil has been used as an alternative to diesel fuel in some rural area projects, and pilot projects using biogas are under development. Some evidence of geothermal resources.
- Implementation: Fiji promotes renewable energy through its Rural Electrification Policy (1993), the National Energy Policy (2006) and the ratification of the IRENA Statute (2010). The National Energy Policy focuses on four key strategic areas: national energy planning, energy security, power sector, and renewable energy development. Its national government encourages the development of renewable energy through a number of policies, fiscal incentives, subsidies and loans. Fiji is seeking strong participation of the private sector, important since the emerging industries such as manufacturing, mining and construction are also very energy-intensive. The government has identified challenges to develop and commercialize RE technologies in Fiji: commercial viability, financial feasibility and appropriate service fees.
- Population: 884,887 (2017)
- Area: 18,274 km2 (7,056 sq mi)
- Link: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/05/24/fiji-growing-a-renewable-energy-industry-while-expanding-electricity-access
Lismore, NSW, Australia
- Target: Generate 100% of the City Council's electricity needs from renewable energy sources by 2023.
- Status: In progress
- RES: Solar photovoltaic and thermal systems, hybrid wind and solar-powered off-grid streetlight.
- Implementation: The 100% RE target set by Lismore City Council is a corporate target rather than one applied to the entire city area. The decision of the City Council was made in 2013 after an 18-months community consultation, which resulted in the community expressing the wish for Lismore to become a model of sustainability, starting with the Council itself reaching the 100% goal. The City Council's response was to develop the 2023 Renewable Energy Master Plan in 2014, which would include various action plans. The Plan would involve two important stages. First, energy consumption should be significantly reduced with a range of energy efficiency measures, such as switching to LED lighting and installing solar PV and solar hot water systems at Council-owned sites. Second, a large-scale 3.8-4.7 MW solar plant should be constructed. In 2014, Lismore awarded a tender to Nickel Energy to install 166kW of solar PV which should save nearly $100,000 a year in electricity costs. The city also took advantage a Community Energy Efficiency Program (CEEP) which was established by the federal government of Australia to support local councils and community organisations in improving the energy efficiency of buildings, facilities and street lighting as well as delivering community education. The city conducted energy efficiency upgrades in buildings and facilities. It soon became the first local government in Australia with hybrid wind and solar-powered off-grid street lighting. Meanwhile, the energy efficiency upgrades has reduced electricity consumption within five years by 22%. Since 2013 the council has also been working together with the 'Farming the Sun' initiative to create Australia’s first community-owned solar farm consisting of two 100kW solar PV systems using a community-funded loan. Finance for the projects is being sourced from local community investors.
- Population: 27,569 (2016)
- Area: 1,290 km2
- Link: https://www.lismore.nsw.gov.au/cp_themes/default/page.asp?p=DOC-QMM-54-48-20
Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
- Target: 100% renewable energy
- Status: Achieved
- RES: Wind power
- Implementation: The City of Melbourne is the first major city council in Australia to be 100% powered by renewable energy, achieved through the implementation of a renewable energy power purchasing agreement. The energy is sourced from a 80 MW wind farm at Crowlands, a small agricultural community about 128 miles (206 kilometers) from Melbourne. Pacific Hydro has installed twenty-five turbines, with the goal of 39 turbines. The construction of the wind farm was supported by fourteen members of the city’s leading universities, companies, councils, and cultural institutions. The city aims to lead Australia in responding to climate change, securing a sustainable energy supply for the future and show how a major city with a AUS$92 billion economy can influence positive outcomes in regional towns. The project has created over 140 regional jobs during the construction period. It has also created eight ongoing maintenance jobs. In Crowlands, Pacific Hydro is installing a rooftop solar photovoltaic system and storage battery at the town hall. It will become one of the few town halls in the country powered by solar energy.
The city plans to expand the project by facilitating power purchase agreements for businesses across the city. This will continue to generate investment in new renewable energy which is the cheapest cost for new build electricity generation.
- Population: 5,000,000 (2018)
- Area: 9,992.5 km2 (3,858.1 sq mi)
- Link: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/about-melbourne/sustainability/pages/sustainable-energy.aspx
- Target: 100% renewable energy target by 2020.
- Status: In progress
- RES: Solar thermal and photovoltaics
- Implementation: Niue is the smallest island in South Pacific inhabited by 14 communities. There are only 400 occupied households. Farming and fishing are the two most important industries in the island - these receive development assistance from New Zealand. Due to its location, the island is often hit by a cyclone – around every four years – causing huge physical and economic damage to the country. Its energy sector is hugely dependent on imported fossil fuels, which comes at a huge cost for the island as it uses diesel for generating power. In 2005, the country adopted the Niue Energy Policy and Energy Action Plan, which laid out its commitment to energy efficiency and renewable energy, in particular its 100% goals. The exploration of the country´s potential for renewables is not new and for many years Niue has been using solar water heating, such as is the case with local tourist accommodations. Since then further solar thermal systems have been installed, in particular EU program (2004-2006) which provided incentives for the installation of solar water heaters in households. In recent years, Niue has implemented three grid-connected solar PV systems, solar water heaters, and LPG gas stoves in homes, all installed at a subsidized cost since renewable energy technology was very costly, particularly for the pacific islands´ citizens. These systems were funded by the European Union. Today, electricity generation and energy efficiency programs on the island are managed by Niue Power Corporation (NPC), the national power utility. Major challenges for the island have been: complex requirements by financing institutions, lack of adequate technical capacity for projects maintenance, and limited knowledge of renewable energy. It has been observed that during the implementation of some EU-funded projects that the equipment used sometimes did not suit local conditions.
- Population: 1,624 (2016)
- Area: 261.46 km2 (100.95 sq mi)
- Link: Nieu Energy Action Plan
Palmerston North, NZ
- Target: 100% RE city by 2015.
- Status: In progress
- RES: 3 wind farms (286 turbines), 4 mini-hydro turbines, bio-gas production, 100kW solar arrays, solar hot water heaters, insulation and hot water heat pumps.
- Implementation: The city of Palmerston North is located near the southern end of New Zealand’s North Island. In 2011, the Palmerston North City Council (PNCC) began developing plans to become a 100% RE city. This goal was possible since wind farm development in the area had already begun in 1999, with three wind farms, including New Zealand’s largest, Tararua Wind Farm. Since 1999, a total of 286 turbines have been installed, with a combined annual capacity of approximately 300 MW, providing the city with access to renewable wind power. In addition to sourcing local wind power, the PNCC has invested in several other renewable generation projects. The installation of 4 mini-hydro turbines created enough energy to power the waste water treatment plant. The waste water treatment plant has also been retrofitted with technology allowing for the use of the waste water treatment’s bio-sludge for bio-gas production. The bio-gas produced from this process is used as a peak demand generator, capable of producing up to 75% of the city’s peak electrical demands. The PNCC has also installed a 100kW solar array on the roofs of the PNCC Central Administration Building and the City’s Convention Centre. As part of the city’s ongoing green house gas emission reduction plans, there are established financial assistance programs for improving the efficiency of residential properties. These financial assistance programs provide partial funding for solar hot water heaters, insulation and hot water heat pumps where applicable.
- Population: 88,700 (2018)
- Area: 395 km2 (153 sq mi)
- Link: https://www.stuff.co.nz/manawatu-standard/news/107703079/palmerston-north-could-lead-use-of-renewable-energy
Papua New Guinea
- Target: 100% renewable energy in the electricity sector by 2030
- Status: In progress
- RES: Solar power and bio-energy
- Implementation: Papua New Guinea (PNG) occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea off the northern coast of Australia. In March 2016, PNG became the first nation in the world to finalize a climate plan under the agreement adopted at COP21 in Paris in December 2015. Although the country's greenhouse gas emissions are negligible, PNG wants to set an example to its neighbours and send a strong message to developed countries that are emitting the majority of greenhouse gases that they should act to protect world populations from climate change. PNG's climate plan, as per the Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) guided by UNFCCC rules, is to curb fossil fuel emissions. To this end, PNG has committed to transitioning to 100% renewable energy in the electricity sector by 2030, contingent on availability of funding. The nation also plans to improve efficiency across sectors and reduce emissions where possible in the transportation and forestry sectors. PNG will also seek to mitigate its contribution to climate change by reducing deforestation and promoting forest conservation and sustainable management of the nation's forests, which is being coordinated through an existing UN initiative called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+).
- Population: 8,084,999 (2016)
- Area: 462,840 km2 (178,700 sq mi)
- Link: https://www.businessadvantagepng.com/improving-access-to-finance-the-key-to-solar-power-expansion-in-papua-new-guinea/